Page 8
Existe una serie de objeciones en contra de
este planteamiento que Dennett va a refu-
tar:
1. Objeción dualista: Los robots son ar-
tefactos materiales y la conciencia requiere
una entidad inmaterial.
Según Dennett, detrás de las objeciones
de algunos autores (incluido Searle), de he-
cho, está un dualismo encubierto, un deseo
muy arraigado en todos nosotros – él de
proteger el cerebro de la ciencia. Los «miste-
rios» de la vida van concediendo sus secretos
a la ciencia (por ejemplo, el misterio de la
vida a través del descubrimiento del ADN).
No hay razón alguna para considerar que la
conciencia sea una excepción.
2. Los robots son inorgánicos y la con-
ciencia requiere un cerebro orgánico; los
robots serán siempre demasiado sencillos
y su procesamiento demasiado lento como
para ser conscientes.
Es cierto que la complejidad de la bio-
química cerebral es abrumadora. Sin embar-
go, en la actualidad la ciencia es capaz de
imitar y suplir el funcionamiento de algunos
órganos. Por ejemplo, el corazón artificial
funciona realmente bien, aún siendo muchí-
simo más sencillo que un corazón orgánico.
La construcción de un ojo artificial ya está en
el horizonte. Si es posible con el corazón y
el ojo, ¿por qué no con el cerebro? No hay
ninguna objeción lógica en contra de la posi-
bilidad de sustituir cada uno de los módulos
cerebrales por un circuito electrónico. Con
todo, de modo análogo al caso del corazón
artificial, para construir un cerebro artificial
probablemente no sea necesario hacer una
copia sinapsis por sinapsis.
En conclusión, la conciencia y la inteli-
gencia no son más que los disparos de las
neuronas. El funcionamiento de los circuitos
cerebrales es replicable por medios infor-
máticos, sea como una réplica exacta o,
mejor, utilizando simplificaciones que darán
los mismos resultados funcionales. Dennett
sugiere que el método más viable de crear
una máquina consciente es construir un robot
8 • LA CONCIENCIA
dotado de la capacidad de interaccionar con
el ambiente de un modo similar al nuestro,
y aprender. Así va a crear su propia repre-
sentación mental del mundo y, finalmente,
su propia conciencia.
La habitación china de J. Searle
J. Searle, eminente filósofo de la Uni-
versidad de Berkeley, propone un sencillo
experimento mental para demostrar que un
sistema de IA no puede poseer conciencia.
Imaginemos que encierran al mismo Searle
en una habitación donde hay fichas con
símbolos chinos y unos cuadernos con re-
glas en inglés de cómo manipularlas. Fuera
de la habitación hay un grupo de hablantes
de chino nativos, que le hacen preguntas
por escrito. Searle dentro de la habitación
emplea el manual en inglés para correlacio-
nar los signos chinos de entrada con otro
conjunto de signos y responde, empleando
las «fichas de respuesta». Desde el punto de
vista de las personas fuera de la habitación,
las respuestas que da Searle no se pueden
distinguir de las de un hablante de chino.
Sin embargo, la persona dentro no tiene ni
idea – sólo está manipulando símbolos for-
males, carentes de significado. Searle dice:
«Es bastante obvio que no entiendo ni una
palabra en chino, aún teniendo la entrada y
salida idéntica a la de un hablante nativo. Del
mismo modo podría ejecutar cualquier otro
tipo de instrucciones formales (programa),
sin entender nada.»
En consecuencia, cualquier simulación de
un fenómeno mental humano no deja de ser
una simulación. No importa lo inteligente que
parezca la conducta de un ordenador. Como
los símbolos que manipula carecen de signi-
ficado para él, no puede considerarse que es
realmente inteligente. No piensa de verdad.
Sus procesos internos son puramente sintác-
ticos, el sistema no asocia ningún significado
a los símbolos y, por lo tanto, no puede
tener estados mentales intencionales.

Page 9
Image_32_0
Searle ofrece el siguiente razonamiento
derivado de su experimento mental:
A1) Los programas informáticos tienen
carácter formal (sintáctico)
A2) La mente humana tiene contenidos
(significado, semántica)
A3) La sintaxis por sí misma no constituye
el significado ni es suficiente para dar lugar
al mismo.
La conclusión es:
C1) Los programas no pueden constituir
ni son suficientes para crear la mente.
Al principio planteamos dos preguntas:
a) Si era plausible el Test de Turing como
prueba de la presencia del pensamiento en
una máquina. Y b) ¿Es posible construir una
sistema capaz de pasar la prueba?
Searle no niega la posibilidad de construir
tal máquina. Pero responde que el Test de
Turing no es suficiente para atribuirle concien-
cia o pensamiento ya que, según demuestra
el argumento de la caja china, es posible
pasar un test conductual sin pensar, sólo
ejecutando un programa formal.
Objeciones a la habitación china
y respuestas de Searle
En este párrafo presentaremos los argu-
mentos más importantes en contra del plan-
teamiento de la Habitación china.*
Objeción sistémica
El ejemplo de Searle hace que nos centre-
mos en un solo componente de la habitación
– la persona dentro. Searle encerrado en la
habitación forma parte del sistema y aunque
él no entienda chino, el sistema considerado
como un todo sí puede entenderlo.
Para refutar esta respuesta Searle propone
que imaginemos un individuo que memoriza
todas las reglas y signos, y realiza la bús-
queda y las operaciones necesarias en su
cabeza. Ahora, la persona es el sistema y
sigue sin entender nada. Para Searle, el or-
denador no tiene conciencia, el usuario sí: El
usuario da el significado al resultado de los
cómputos en pantalla.
El simulador cerebral
Si creamos un programa implementado en
un ordenador (o en la persona dentro de la
caja china), que simule la secuencia exacta
de los disparos neuronales en un hablante de
chino que comprende y responde a las pre-
LA INTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIAL • 9

Page 10
Image_35_0
guntas, tenemos que aceptar que la máquina
comprende el chino, ya que a nivel sináptico
no hay ninguna diferencia entre el programa
ejecutado y un cerebro chino. Si no, también
habría que negar a una persona china la ca-
pacidad de comprender su idioma.
Searle responde que este acercamiento
tampoco es suficiente y cambia el escenario
de la caja china para demostrarlo. En lugar
de operar con símbolos, el hombrecillo ahora
manipula una compleja red de tuberías de
agua y válvulas. Teniendo una determinada
entrada de signos chinos, las instrucciones
le dicen qué válvulas ha de cerrar y cuáles
abrir, de forma similar a la propagación de
excitaciones e inhibiciones en un cerebro
chino. En cuanto ejecute el programa y el
agua esté correctamente distribuida por el
sistema, en la parte de salida aparecerá la
respuesta en chino. Sin embargo, es evidente
que las tuberías, y tampoco el hombrecillo,
entienden nada de chino, aunque están co-
piando perfectamente la estructura formal de
las sinapsis neuronales.
Otras mentes
Este argumento pretende recordarnos el
simple hecho de que la única manera de
saber si una persona comprende chino o no,
es observando su conducta. En consecuencia,
si un ordenador supera las pruebas conduc-
tuales, tenemos que atribuirle el pensamien-
to, del mismo modo como lo atribuimos a
10 • LA CONCIENCIA
un ser humano.
Según Searle, este planteamiento no es
acertado. La cuestión no debería ser «cómo
sabemos que las otras personas piensan» sino
«qué es lo que les atribuimos al decir que
piensan». Y ese «algo» no son sólo procesos
computacionales porque estos pueden existir
independientemente del pensamiento (Lo cual
se ha demostrado con la Caja china.)
Las objeciones de Dennett
Uno de los atacantes más perseverantes
de la Caja china es, por supuesto, Daniel
Dennett, que considera que el argumento
de Searle carece de validez científica. Según
Dennett, Searle insiste indebidamente en un
punto de vista subjetivo desde la primera
persona, desde dentro de la caja china. Esto
no es correcto ya que una aproximación
empírica requiere una observación objetiva
desde fuera. La pregunta «¿Piensan los orde-
nadores?» se plantea en tercera persona. Por
lo tanto, requiere también una aproximación
de tercera persona.
A la posición de Searle, afirma Dennett,
subyace un dualismo encubierto. La caja chi-
na se parece más a una objeción teológica
en contra de IA que se oculta bajo la más-
cara de un argumento científico serio. Searle
ha construido una situación intuitiva ad hoc,
que apunta en una conclusión falsa.
Conclusión
Dennett insiste en los principios científicos
– la evidencia sugiere que la inteligencia y
la conciencia emergen de los disparos neu-
ronales. Entonces, para crear una mente
no hace falta nada más que replicar esos
procesos cerebrales. Por otro lado, la caja
china de Searle apela a nuestra intuición y
al sentido común. Sin embargo, al hablar de
experiencia consciente estamos considerando
una experiencia subjetiva – por lo tanto, ¿no
es lógico adoptar un punto de vista intuitivo
y subjetivo? Y Searle insiste – la habitación

Page 11
china no puede pensar, el pensamiento no es
igual a la computación. Del mismo modo que
la simulación de un coche no nos lleva de
Madrid a Praga, la simulación de un cerebro
no da lugar a una mente consciente.
Con todo, incluso si Searle está en lo
cierto, hay que hacer una matización: De-
mostrar que el pensamiento no es reducible
a la computación, no implica demostrar que
la conducta de una máquina u ordenador
carezca de intencionalidad. ¿Llegará un día
en que el hombrecillo de Searle romperá las
paredes y saldrá fuera de la caja?
Aplicación práctica
Ver la película de Spielberg sobre la IA.
Buscar en Internet, en un buscador como
Google. Comparar a un perrito robot con
una mascota real. Buscar información sobre
el «científico-loco» y hombre-maquina Kevin
Warwick. Existe un programa informático, el
Hit Song Science (HSS), que evalúa la proba-
bilidad que tiene una canción de convertirse
en éxito. Existen autómatas que piensan y
formulan hipótesis (invención de los inves-
tigadores Ross King y Stephen Oliver, de
las universidades de Gales y Birmingham).
Los ordenadores también utilizan la lógica
difusa, propia de los humanos. El ingeniero
informático de Silicon Valley Jeff Hawkins
programa ordenadores que funcionan como
nuestro córtex cerebral mediante el contraste
de hipótesis. El científico Kim Jonh-Hwam de
Corea del Sur desarrolla robots con cromoso-
mas, capaces de sentir pasión, reproducirse
y tener personalidad.
Experimento mental
En lugar de pensar en los ordenadores
como seres, ¿es en eso en lo que se con-
vierten al poseer conciencia?, piensa en los
seres humanos como autómatas programa-
dos: ¿Somos robots? Nuestra conducta y
nuestro pensamiento es la consecuencia de
la activación de programas, puestos en mar-
cha por los estímulos adecuados, ya sean
innatos o aprendidos. Un algoritmo o progra-
ma es una secuencia de pasos elementales
que se pone en marcha ante la presencia
de su estímulo adecuado y no se detiene
hasta ofrecer su resultado. El programa mo-
tor que nos permite andar. El programa que
nos permite construir frases y conversar. El
programa que nos conduce a hacer café,
a volver a casa al salir del trabajo, a saber
comportarnos en un restaurante, a amar y
reproducirnos... Todo es una secuencia de
pasos que seguimos sin darnos cuenta o de
un modo ciego. Una vez puestos en marcha,
los programas no se interrumpen fácilmente.
¿Puede un ordenador «decidir» cuando inicia
la ejecución de uno de estos programas,
aunque el estímulo desencadenante esté
ausente? ¿Puede un ordenador interrumpir
un programa en curso en función de una
condición no establecida en el mismo? ¿Pue-
de hacer esto un ser humano? ¿Sueñan los
ordenadores? ¿Sueñan los humanos? ¿Nues-
tro pensamiento inconsciente y sus acciones
resultantes son sólo el resultado de «correr»
algoritmos? Si la conciencia es el eco interno
que produce nuestro pensamiento, de mane-
ra que comprender es oirnos (autoaudición,
retroalimentación), los ordenadores no son
conscientes, aunque podrían incorporar un
mecanismo de retroalimentación continua
que cambiase sus instrucciones y su función
—como maquinas de propósito general que
son— ante las circunstancias, mostrando así
flexibilidad cognitiva.
Pensamiento crítico
Tal vez pasar la prueba de Turing sea más
fácil de lo que parece, con trucos, utilizando
un reducido número de expresiones del tipo
«ajá», «ya veo», «Bien, bien», repetir la última
palabra de la frase dicha por el juez, o frases
como «no sé que decirte en este momento».
LA INTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIAL • 11

Page 12
Se cuenta que así funcionó un ordenador que
simulaba a un doctor psicoanalista, que con-
siguió muchos pacientes, quienes deseaban
volver a visitarlo pues se sentían escuchados.
Parece que no es la inteligencia del orde-
nador, sino la candidez humana de nuevo.
El ordenador Eliza pasa la prueba de Turing
–ver a través de un buscador The Turing test
page, en direcciones de Internet–. Pasamos
horas en Internet, sobre todo para chatear
con otros humanos, que es más divertido,
y buscar cibersexo, ciberemoción y ciberami-
gos. Esto es una variante de la prueba de
Turing (tal vez su reverso), un test que todos
quieren pasar, donde manda la mentira pero
nos evita el miedo a los ojos del otro y el
fracaso emocional.
Lecturas recomendadas
El Quinteto de Cambridge. Ver la biblio-
grafía.
Direcciones de Internet
En lugar de dar direcciones concretas
ofrecemos palabras claves para usar en un
buscador como google, que producen resul-
tados de búsqueda satisfactorios, aunque el
lector deberá siempre según su criterio sepa-
rar la información interesante de la de baja
calidad. Para reducir la información combine
varias palabras clave.
-
Sobre el test de Turing: Usar los tér
-
minos test de Turing. Salen informaciones
como The Turing test page, que contiene
además una página sobre la habitación china
12 • LA CONCIENCIA
de Searle (Searle´s chinese room). En español
ver Test de Turing y prácticas del test de
Turing. Así como pasar la prueba de Turing,
Eliza.
www.iep.utm.edu/c/chineser
www.gsi.dit.upm.es/cif/cursos/pssii/pturing/
pturing
www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/tildeasaygin/tt/ttest
-
Nombres de científicos relevantes
sobre la IA y la conciencia, para buscar sus
páginas web y sus artículos son Marvin Mins-
ky, Rodney brooks, Stuart Russell o Martha
Pollack. Usar como término de búsqueda el
nombre más inteligencia artificial.
-
Una dirección relevante es www.ai.mit.
edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/cog.
Buscar información sobre los proyectos CYC
(el robot con sentido común) y COG (el ro-
bos consciente). Destacar también el Center
for Intelligent Systems (centro de inteligen-
cia artificial) y la American Association for
Artificial Intelligence (Asociación americana
de inteligencia artificial), así como la revista
Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research.
-
Otros términos muy interesantes de
búsqueda son: 1. Sentidos artificiales. 2.
Cuerpo artificial. 3.Conciencia artificial. 4.
Redes neuronales y Algoritmos genéticos.
-
Una dirección curiosa con artículos
muy interesantes sobre evolución de las
especies y vida artificial es: www.geocities.
com/Krousky/Espanol. Consultar también www.
creatures.net (Creatures labs). Términos de
búsqueda interesante son la bioinformática
y la cibervida (cyberlife technology).
-
Sobre las máquinas de jugar al aje
-
drez, introducir los términos deep blue o
deep junior, o máquinas de ajedrez y el nom-
bre de grandes maestros como Kasparov.

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th__58__rendered_path__166__rendered_path__44__rendered_path__171__rendered_path__172__rendered_path__202__rendered_path__61__rendered_path__53__rendered_path__40__rendered_path__187__rendered_path__43__rendered_path__63__rendered_path__17__rendered_path__93__rendered_path__83__rendered_path__188__rendered_path__82__rendered_path__69__rendered_path__93__rendered_path__50__rendered_path__35__rendered_path__83__rendered_path__49__rendered_path__170__rendered_path__79__rendered_path__96__rendered_path__75__rendered_path__128__rendered_path__32__rendered_path__128__rendered_path__42__rendered_path__31__rendered_path__32__rendered_path__22__rendered_path__62__rendered_path__136__rendered_path__39__rendered_path__42__rendered_path__201__rendered_path__64__rendered_path__43__rendered_path__39__rendered_path__67
LA INTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIAL • 13

Page 14
Bibliografía
Cast, L. John (1998). El Quinteto de Cam-
bridge. Buenos Aires. Taurus.
Dennett, Daniel Clement (1998): Brainchil-
dren : essays on designing minds, Har-
mondsworth, Penguin Books.
Epstein, R. Can machines think? AI magazine,
13(2): 80-95, 1992.
Hauser, Larry (1993): Searle’s Chinese Box:
The Chinese Room Argument and Artifi-
cial Intelligence, East Lansing, Michigan:
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